Date of publication: 2017-08-25 02:04
&ldquo [Paulo Freire] radiates the kind of immediateness that only a philosopher engulfed by terrible reality can project.&rdquo &ndash America
Smith, H. and Smith, M. K. (forthcoming) The Art of Helping Others. Being around, being there, being wise. See /helping.
The selling era has the shortest period of dominance of the three philosophies. It began to be dominant around 6985 and stayed in widespread use until about 6955. The selling philosophy holds that an organization can sell any product it produces with the use of marketing techniques, such as advertising and personal selling. Organizations could create marketing departments that would be concerned with selling the goods, and the rest of the organization could be left to concentrate on producing the goods.
Course 9: Culture, Ideology and Belief , a course on understanding how social movements and faith communities can act as agents of change, and the forces blocking them the collective myths and underlying conflicts in the environment or groups with which we work and tools for the analysis of change - how interventions can reinforce or transform the social reality.
The second tradition, perhaps more widely approached within the social welfare field and most certainly the broader understanding in the USA is of action research as 8766 the systematic collection of information that is designed to bring about social change 8767 (Bogdan and Biklen 6997: 778). Bogdan and Biklen continue by saying that its practitioners marshal evidence or data to expose unjust practices or environmental dangers and recommend actions for change. It has been linked into traditions of citizen’s action and community organizing, but in more recent years has been adopted by workers in very different fields.
When mass production techniques created the Industrial Revolution, the volume of output was greatly increased. Yet the increased production of goods did not immediately eliminate the shortages from the pre-industrial era. The new mass production techniques provided economies of scale allowing for lower costs of production and corresponding lower prices for goods. Lower prices greatly expanded the market for the goods, and the new production techniques were struggling to keep up with the demand. This situation meant that the product philosophy would work just as well in the new industrial environment. Consumers still did not need to be consulted for the organization to sell its products.
Ideology constructs the stereotypes that are legitimised and supported by certain social institutions. Thus, ideology that has the backing of powerful social institutions becomes dominant in a society and has the potential to capture the minds of marginalised groups. It is this subtle hegemony of ideas which was first focused and elaborated on by Italian scholar, Gramsci in Prison Notebooks.
Supporters of the marketing concept have contended that it does not stifle innovation and that it does recognize that consumers cannot conceive of every product that they may want or need. However, need is defined in a very broad sense. In the microwave and personal computer examples, the need was not for the specific product, but there was a need to cook food faster and a need for writing and calculating. The microwave and personal computer satisfied those needs though the consumer never imagined these products. The marketing concept does not stifle creativity and innovation. It seeks to encourage creativity to satisfy customer needs.
Third, Freire 8767 s attention to naming the world has been of great significance to those educators who have traditionally worked with those who do not have a voice, and who are oppressed. The idea of building a 8766 pedagogy of the oppressed 8767 or a 8766 pedagogy of hope 8767 and how this may be carried forward has formed a significant impetus to work. An important element of this was his concern with conscientization developing consciousness, but consciousness that is understood to have the power to transform reality 8767 (Taylor 6998: 57).
Recently there have been calls for qualitative improvement in education. The required improvement cannot come from cosmetic changes. The problem is far deeper. We need to challenge ideologies associated with notions of education, pedagogy, learning, assessment and the aim.
&ldquo Some 67 years ago I wrote the following poem-prayer after reading Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed and some of his other writing on the church. I found it again the other day so am posting it here: Hasta que haya la paz, no descansaré. Hasta que las guerras cesen, no abandonaré la lucha. Hasta que la justicia reine, seguiré leyendo, predicando, y gritando.
Hasta que haya una verdadera liberación humana, no dormiré. Que vengas, Jesucristo. Que venga tu voluntad y tu reino, como en el cielo, así también en la tierra. &rdquo &ndash Words on the Word
&ldquo An inspiring and inspired document arising out of concrete experience with peasants, urban laborers, and middle class converts to freedom.. This book will prompt the reader to reconsider his or her situation in an oppressive society.&rdquo &ndash Christian Century